Female Infertility

Female Infertility is the infertility in women and refers to the inability of conception within one year of unprotected coitus.

The causes of female infertility can be acquired, genetic and others such as uterine, cervical factors, etc.

Some of the acquired factors are age, lifestyle, sexually transmitted infections and others. The cause of infertility might also be due to genetic mutations in humans.

Other factors are the problems involved in female reproductive organs such as:-

  • Ovarian factors
  • Uterine factors
  • Tubal factors
  • Cervical factors
  • Vaginal factors

Ovarian factors

The incurrence of pregnancy depends upon the proper functioning of the ovaries and regular menstrual cycle. Some of the ovulatory dysfunctions causing infertility are:

  • Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCO)
  • Premature menopause
  • Poor oocyte reserve
  • Ovarian cysts

PCO is a condition where the female sex hormones like estrogen and progesterone are imbalanced, resulting in abnormal female menstrual cycle, anovulation and infertility.

Uterine factors

Uterine fibroids are very common non-cancerous tumors that develop in the muscular wall of the uterus. They can vary in numbers and size from tiny to larger than a muskmelon. Occasionally, these uterine fibroid can cause the uterus to grow to the size of a five-month pregnancy or even bigger.

Uterine polyps are growths that occur in the endometrium (the inner lining of the uterus), due to which, they are sometimes referred as endometrial polyps. Uterine polyps are formed by the overgrowth of endometrial tissue.

Tubal factors

Tubal factors include block in fallopian tubes (tubal obstruction, tubal dysfunction), Endometriosis, Tuberculosis and Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Block in fallopian tubes affects fertility as the fallopian tube is one of the foremost part of the uterus where fertilization occurs. Endometriosis is a condition where endometrium, a lining on which an embryo implants, is present outside the uterus. Endometriosis can greatly affect the fertilization, movement of gametes and embryos and implantation due to peritubal factors and adhesions.

Cervical factors

Includes cervical stenosis and antisperm antibodies. Cervical stenosis is a condition where the entry of semen/sperms is impeded. The presence of antisperm antibodies in cervix will provoke the female immune system to act against the sperms, causing difficulty in achieving pregnancy.

Vaginal factors

These might include Vaginusmus, a condition where the vagina contracts and restricts the penetration causing consummation of marriage difficult. Vaginal obstruction can be due to some birth defects such as transverse septum or imperforated hymen.

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